Record: A record is typically is used when a data file is organized into a table structure. In such organization of data, a record belongs to a hierarchy of fields, records and files. We can define record as a structured data type made up of a finite collection of not necessarily homogenous (of same type) but related data elements. The related data elements bound together in a record structure are called fields or attributes. A file is a collection of similar records. Each data item itself may be a group item composed of sub items; those items which are indecomposable are called elementary items or atoms. Fields in a record are named and used as identifiers.
Record and array structures have some similar and some different properties as described below.
a) Like arrays, records are accessed directly through the use of field selectors, also called identifiers. In case of arrays, an element is accessed by an index number.
b) A record, like an array, occupies a consecutive block of cells in memory. The record’s accessing function calculates the location or address from a named field selector, called identifier.